Johana totally fell in love with Stefan.
After several dates, she cannot imagine her life without him.
Mentally, she bought a house with him and gave birth to two children.
But before turning all dreams into reality,
Johana decided to check on her boyfriend.
She is not a spook.
Using a special site,
Johana wants to check if Stefan is her relative or nay.
As it turned out,
that her previous boyfriend
was her second cousin.
You are very welcome to Iceland!
This is The Life of Others.
The Life of Others
Thousands of tourists come to Iceland to see this beauty:
waterfalls, mountains, northern lights.
And the Icelanders themselves live in this beauty.
For them, this is commonplace.
And about how they live here, we will get to know today.
80% of its territory is not populated by people.
A little more than 350,000 people live in the rest of the country.
If I was born in Iceland,
I would be born in the family of Guzioun Hildybrandsson.
I would live far from the capital.
I would spend all my free time on my family’s shark farm.
Or I would be born in the family of
I would love to swim in the outdoor pool,
And I would dream to become a policeman like my mother.
Or I would be born in the family
of Jonas Hafstainsson and Sigrdur Olafsdotir.
I would live in an elite area of Reykjavik.
I would learn horseback riding at a local equestrian club.
But no matter what family I was born into,
there won’t occur any problems with the choice of my name.
Choosing the names for my kids
was quite a mind-blowing thing.
And in Iceland,
it is a pretty simple thing.
You know why?
Because here they’ve got
the whole list of names to choose from.
And no more options.
So, there’s Helena, Masha, Natasha and that’s it.
I myself is against this law.
Ann Vernhardsdotir, a doctor
The names are chosen only from the approved by the committee, list.
If the Icelander wants to be creative,
he would have to go through more than one instance,
and spend a lot of time to arrange it all.
So, it’s much easier to live by the laws.
they’ve got no surnames in Iceland.
But just names, and patronymic
that are used instead of surnames.
For example, if the Icelander’s name is Johan,
the patronymic Johansson would be added
to his son’s name,
and Johannsdotir would be his daughter’s name.
When the Icelander gets married, she doesn’t change her patronymic.
And she doesn’t take her husband’s patronymic.
Sigridur Olafsdotir, a manager
That’s why each member of our family has totally different Icelandic last names.
My husband and I have the last names of our father.
And our kids
have the last names of my husband.
Parents in Iceland neither worry about their names,
nor where to get money for childbirth.
As everything is for free here.
And that’s thanks to taxes that every Icelander regularly pays.
Women do not need to pay anything for childbirth even if there was a caesarean section.
When leaving the clinic,
each woman in labor receives postpartum care.
3-5 times a week a midwife visits her for free.
She teaches breastfeeding,
Observes the physical condition of the mother and child,
and their psychological health as well.
Also, after childbirth, nine-month maternity leave is provided.
It can be divided as desired between mother and father.
As the kindergartens here are unreasonably expensive,
After the end of the maternity leave,
my parents and the parents of the husband
will take turns sitting with the child.
That’s how it works until our kid turns six years old
and he goes to school.
So we have to ask parents for their help.
There are more than 100 schools in Reykjavik,
each of which has 700 or more children.
There are fewer pupils in remote cities.
I came to the city of Borgarnes with a population of about 1900 people.
I will show you the most typical Icelandic school.
Not just locals,
but also those who live in the nearest villages study here.
Every morning they arrive at the school on the school bus.
Elinora is one of those.
So, let’s ask her now,
what it is like to study in Iceland.
This is the locker room and you leave your clothes here.
Elinora Johansdotir, a pupil
Are you walking barefoot?
Right you are.
It’s zero degrees outside.
And you wear
such rag sneakers?!
Don’t you feel cold?
Are you seasoned?
We really are seasoned since our childhood.
So, you leave your shoes here,
and then you enter the school.
Good that I was allowed to stay in my shoes for not to freeze my legs.
My mom used to tell me not to walk barefoot.
Cause otherwise, you will get the flu.
I’m telling you!
And here all the children go barefoot.
So, what’s next?
Children need to be tempered from childhood.
Helga Magnusdotir, a teacher
We don’t forbid children to bring a second pair of shoes,
but parents themselves are interested in their children getting used to the cold
and perceive It normally.
Now let’s check the canteen,
the most beloved place of all the pupils.
Before entering the canteen,
you must sanitize your hands.
Right you are, this is the must.
It’s cool, as there’s no need to wash it with soap,
and to dry them later on.
So, please, show me
what you eat here.
why do some kids
walk barefoot, but wear hats on?
And why so?
Probably their feet are warm and their head is cold.
That’s so interesting.
Do you feel cold in the head?
I do, as it is winter outside.
Help yourself, dear.
You feel cold in the head,
but it’s ok
to walk barefoot on a cold floor.
That’s what the life of others is.
Schooling in Iceland is absolutely free.
Food is the only thing parents pay for here.
One lunch costs $4.
Let’s see what is included in this amount.
So, what’s here?
Is it yogurt?
Yes, it is. Yogurt today is the main course.
I see, it’s vanilla, and it’s strawberry.
you have some sandwiches with butter and cheese.
I get it.
As far as I got,
this is a snack,
but not the main course.
Nope, this is our proper meal.
Do you ever have any
sausages, or burgers?
Or some soup?
Every day we have a different menu.
I see that’s great.
No reason for me to worry.
What else d’you have here?
I see some milk.
Wow, but it’s so cold!
Right you are! We should temper our organism!
Do your classmates often get sick?
What is the point of being tempered if you get sick anyway?
Pupils in our countries wear their second pair of shoes,
drink warm milk,
and we don’t wear hats indoors.
And we get sick as well.
So it comes to the same result.
But it seems to me that this is uncomfortable.
But it may just seem,
as I am used to a different thing.
Oh my God!
Just look at this view!!!
It is simply impossible to tear yourself away from this view.
So, you came in for lunch,
grab some yogurt,
and eat it staring at this view.
Is it your swimming pool?
Right, there we have our lessons.
Swimming lessons compulsory in our school as well as math and literature.
From the first to the tenth grade,
regardless of the weather, all students go to the pool
throughout the year.
We are surrounded by water,
so we must swim well.
But it is zero today.
And it is 10 degrees above zero in summer.
Well, it’s a little bit cold.
A little bit?
When it is 40 degrees outside,
it is good for me.
But 20 degrees is your maximum in summer.
So it is always so cold here.
Your swimming pool is outdoors.
Do you walk just in swimming suits outside?
Right you are.
It is totally the life of others.
jump a bench and ropes course,
Icelandic students are splashing around in the open-air pool.
I’ll go and take a closer look at this.
But I’ll be wearing a coat and my boots.
And shoe covers as this is a swimming-pool.
Here the children take a physical education lesson.
This one is for juniors,
and this one is for adults.
Now it is 1 degree above zero.
I unzipped my jacket to make it a little more beautiful.
But, truly, that’s very cold here.
And the water
is so warm.
I’d even jump in.
Sasha, try it.
How does it feel?
It’s very good, really. My cameraman agreed with me.
This is a physical education lesson! This is awesome!
But it’s bloody freezing out there!
No matter, how severe it looks from the side,
school lessons grow into a love for swimming for the whole of their life.
In any city or village, a city pool is required.
And from morning to night they are crowded with visitors.
Icelanders do not miss the opportunity to swim
in the open air after an active working day,
and even the Northern Lights sometimes.
Magnus Torsteinsson, a businessman
To a question how to spend an evening in Iceland,
more often, you would get an answer to spend t in the pool.
Everyone from babies to old people
sit in hot water of geothermal springs.
Iceland is the country of dreams.
Northern lights and active volcanoes, geysers are not available everywhere.
To become a lucky man,
who saw it all with his own eyes,
apply to the company JazzTour.
And your trip would be unforgettable!
Nature generously rewarded Iceland with hot springs
and beautiful landscapes.
Annually several million tourists come to see
the geyser and the sleeping volcanos.
Which is almost ten times the population of the country.
After the eruption of the volcano, a wave of tourists surged into us.
Maria Gudyonsdotir, an assistant professor
We can hardly cope
with a stream of people wishing to see Iceland.
But it’s a sin to complain.
As within the last year, we earn around 2 billion dollars on tourists.
Despite awesome views,
Iceland is also rich in seafood.
Fish is even
depicted on Icelandic coins.
And the state of the economy of the country depends on it all in all.
And while half of Europe
buys Icelandic herring,
Moreover, not quite ordinary.
Hákarl is a national dish of Iceland.
Which consists of some sliced Greenland shark.
Which would be okay,
if not it’s smell that reminds something dead, but not alive.
But if you have some strong drink to go with it,
then it would be fine.
Not any national holiday goes without this dish.
Leo Emilsson, a student
I have a shark maximum once a year.
But it is always on a table
on any family holiday.
He together with his family
with their own hands, they cut Greenland sharks
and dry their meat.
So in such a way,
within around six months, it is ready to eat.
If the temperature was above zero outside,
then there would be no way to hide from flies.
As it smells so hard here.
Guzioun Hildybrandsson, a farm owner
We buy around 80 sharks
from the local sailors.
To sum it up,
only 8% is available for eating.
One kilo of ready-to-eat meat
Within a month we can earn from $7,950 and up to $23, 850.
And it’s a pretty good income for such a small farm.
the fishermen even made good money at the whale catch.
And, on the contrary to the whole world, it was allowed!
Kiri Ladvigsson, a chef
So many whale meat gathered at the fish exchange,
that it would be enough of it for a couple of coming years.
So right now whale meat catch is forbidden.
But this did not stop resourceful Icelanders.
Several times a day
they drive tourists
for a boat trip with whales.
And they are making good money on it.
The very captain
invited me for one of such trips.
Sorry to admit, but I didn’t notice any whales there.
But in the captain’s cabin, I steered a little.
Oh, that’s a pity that we didn’t observe any whales today.
Do you somehow notice them by ultrasounds?
Hvudmundur Magnusson, a captain
Or you just see them, jumping out of the water and that’s it.
Right you are.
I have a couple of radars,
that notify me when something huge is nearby.
That’s why we are trying to catch up with this object.
And in case this is a whale,
we are chasing after him.
I got it. So you don’t see any of it nearby, right?
No wonder, as yesterday they went for a walk,
and today they are chilling.
Can I check your binoculars?
Wow! It is so big!
But I can’t see anything through it!
Oh, I see something!
It’s so interesting!
a couple hugging on the seashore.
I can see the objects which are so far away.
If we don’t see whales,
then I would admire this beauties around.
Captain Magnusson earns around
$4,750 per month.
He says that it’s enough for life in Reykjavik.
But a salary increase would not hurt.
To feel comfortable in Iceland,
especially if you live in the capital,
it is better to get a diploma of higher education.
It will take you from two and up to four years.
for the rest of your life,
you will have the change to get a good job.
An average salary around the country is
A young teacher
would earn from $2 800.
A bank officer would get around $4 750 and up to 6 350.
And a police officer
would get not less than $ 4 000.
And this is an after-tax deduction.
The tax itself ranges from 35 to 42%.
After graduation from the University,
I plan to deal with computer sciences,
And make boom in this sphere.
The cost of one term of studying
in the Icelander university
$1 200 and can even reach $6 350.
It’s not cheap, but it is worthy.
After receiving a diploma,
90% of students
find a job in their specialty.
many of then use to work on the same
position within all their life.
Quite often you tell me that
you are tired of the work you do.
It is so boring to sit in the office.
And you wanna
change it all so badly.
And in Iceland,
nobody worries about anything.
And do you know why?
Because they can easily combine two jobs at a time.
For instance, a fisherman
can be a ballet dancer.
An engineer can be a writer of science fiction.
Can you believe?
But this is the truth!
My acquaintance Magnusson,
for a ten years already,
combine his job of financier
and the manager of a horse farm.
My coworkers here and there
know that I am combining
a couple fields of activity.
A lot of them actually
have as well some extra business,
or turned their hobby into their second job.
We manage to keep up
and be successful everywhere.
Magnusson monthly income
can reach up to $11 950.
As the tourist adore his farm.
And the locals
bring here their kids
to teach them some horse-riding.
More often, in Iceland
one job is for pleasure,
and another one is for earning money.
And you know, this is quite suitably,
as you can both devote some time to profession you love,
and you can always feed yourself.
Kjartan Kristjansson, an actor and a lighting technician.
I am an actor in the most popular show in Iceland.
But I can easily combine
being an actor with the position
of a lighting technician in this very theatre.
Harpa Reykjavik Concert Hall and Conference Centre,
where Kjartan works,
is a favourable place of each Icelander
All the cultural action is in it.
Performances, ballet, symphony orchestras
always take place here with full houses.
And it’s no wonder,
as it is the only one in the whole country.
On a par with ordinary residents,
even local celebrities
don’t miss the chance
to work on two jobs at the same time.
No matter how strange it may sound.
I used to cooperate
with Iceland national football team.
And its coach combined this his occupation
with dental practice.
And the goalkeeper of this team
was moonlighting as a director of commercials.
But the Icelanders itself don’t live by work alone.
Closer to 30 years,
is trying to make a family.
To get a little of family life,
I decided to visit
Jonas and Sigridur
in the very center of Reykjavik.
You have two kids.
How long have you been together?
Sigridur Olafsdotir, a manager
We live together for three years already.
And my elder son is from my ex-boyfriend.
You aren’t married, right?
It’s your turn to answer.
She behaves like a real woman.
Jonas Hafsteinsson, a lawyer
No, we aren’t married, as I see no point in it.
65% of children in Iceland are illegitimate children.
As even more than half of the couples here
live without any stamp in their passports.
Only religious people are getting married now.
But there’s actually no point in it.
As the laws are the same as well as for married couples,
and those who simply live together.
In the case of divorce,
everything would be divided according to the law.
Making a wedding party is quite wasteful.
It’s much better to spend this sum of money on something even more worthy.
So that’s the way this couple made it.
all the saved money not on a party,
but on down payment for the apartment.
Our flat is 60 square meters,
and it costs
If you have 15% of its cost,
the bank has a right to
give you the entire remaining amount on credit.
Now we already have an apartment,
and it’s much better than a wedding party.
That’s how rational
the Icelanders are!
Is it true,
that before getting married,
check your future husband for family ties.
As there’s not that many people here,
and it’s a pretty hard thing
to find yourself a person
who won’t be your far-away distant cousin?
Well, there exists a special web site, but we didn’t use it.
I checked it! – Really?
that we are very distant cousins.
How did you check it?
I had to print our full names, and dates of birth,
and the site showed me our family tree.
Does everyone check it?
I think they do.
But it’s more like fun.
The population here is not that big,
so everyone knows their relatives.
I wouldn’t even
have an idea to check
if this guy is my relative or nay.
And here, even if it’s a joke,
it really exists here. And it’s quite interesting.
of Iceland is a bit more than 350, 000 people.
So, anyway, we are all relatives here in this or that way.
So we are obliged to check
our true love on the genealogy base.
So that later there would be no unpleasant surprises.
Most of the year in Iceland is dark and cold.
And only from May
till August locals enjoy
sunny and warm weather.
If it can call it so.
Do you actually have
any summer clothes?
I’ve got just a few pieces.
That’s some sundresses and shorts.
And my boys get no more than I do.
What’s the maximum temperature here in summer?
It is around 15 degrees above zero,
and it rarely gets higher.
And this must feel so warm for you, right?
It is warm as long as the sun shines.
A lot even try
This is the only summer dress in my wardrobe.
I even didn’t put on this t-shirt.
I wear this pair of shoes
only in summertime when we go to the theatre.
I wear this short just one week a year.
The lack of a hot summer is not a tragedy for Icelanders.
As they are so much excited to get the Vitamin D
in hot countries.
Spain is the most popular
destination for traveling.
All the resident of Iceland
just adore flying there, as it’s almost always warm in it.
Well, right, they weren’t pretty lucky with warmly.
Iceland has other advantages.
Is it safe to live here?
It really is.
So, you can leave your doors open,
and you don’t worry
that some stranger can come in,
It is very safe here.
Since childhood, I used to leave the doors open.
Despite it is totally safe here,
I like to shut it all down.
And I am always asking Jonas to do so.
Knutur Armansson, a farmer
I feel so much safe, that I don’t forbid my kids to walk alone in the evening in dark streets.
And I often forget to close the garage,
where I keep a lot of stuff.
I used to forget my mobile phone
several times in cafe or bus stop,
but on my return,
it always remained on the place I left it.
In Reykjavik, everyone knows each other.
You can always see the doors open,
or car keys,
or babies in carriages behind the cafe doors,
bar or shop.
And there’s a good reason for it.
Iceland has been repeatedly recognized as the most peaceful country in the world.
And as the best place
You can see all this beauty with your own eyes!
The JazzTour company can easily
assist you in the organization of the unforgettable excursions!
Aushta Tordardotir, a police officer
It is that calm in Iceland, that there’s no army here.
But we are not even given firearms on duty.
that the police
is mainly engaged on week-ends in
getting guys who drank too much
I will ask the very policemen
how it feels like
working in the safest country in the world.
Hello Aushta! – Hello!
I haven’t been to many police stations,
but I am so much curious to see it!
So please show me everything!
It’s so interesting!
Is it a prison cell over there?
Is there anybody?
It is empty.
What a cosy and clean place it is!
Do people often stay here?
Criminals spend here an hour as a maximum.
What can they be charged for
to get in here per one hour?
If a person drunk too much,
then he would have to spend here an hour.
What would you do next?
Will you let them go home within one hour?
We either let them go home,
or transfer them to another department.
You know, this cell looks pretty nice.
It is light, warm, and dry,
and there’s even a mattress here.
You know, I’ve never sat in such a place.
And the weather here is that cold,
so it’s even great to warm me up a bit.
It feels even better here than outside.
You see, someone
wrote on a wall. A bad boy!
So what’s next?
I should admit,
that within a couple hours in the police department,
I didn’t see any criminal.
Tell me, why is it so silent here?
We use to work in a calm atmosphere.
All the offices are so tidy.
You have pictures and maps here.
Why these policemen are so handsome,
and always smiley?
Do you actually have here any murders,
It’s all pretty calm here.
What can I say if we have only 200 criminals in prison?
What a boring life!
I even don’t have any weapons.
Here I’ve got a question.
Imagine you walking along the street,
in a bulletproof vest,
out from nowhere,
a theft occurs.
What would you do with him without any gun?
I will either scream or grab police truncheons.
Accept me as a police officer,
after they hear my voice, they will all run away.
Do you patrol
somewhere, but office?
We do. Then show me!
Let’s have a ride!
Maybe some danger awaits us when patrolling.
I even started worrying a little.
Oh, that’s so interesting.
Should I fasten a seatbelt?
Here it is. Do you have any good music here?
We were riding,
riding and riding,
but nothing more dangerous
then a rainbow, we didn’t meet.
We’ve already been riding around for half an hour already.
but no action at all.
So that’s how you are riding all days long,
and having fun.
And your job is so calm.
I bet this is a coincidence.
Usually, we have different occasions.
How many crimes do you have a day?
Sometimes, we are very busy,
and on the other day, it is quiet.
Can we stop anybody,
and check his documents?
Can we do it?
Like in a movie about a good and a bad policemen.
No way, it is very dangerous.
We’d better not,
as I am without my workmate.
Alright then, as it started raining now.
We’d better not do it.
You are right.
but we won’t.
To sum it up,
I’ve never been to more safe country than this one.
So, it’s no wonder,
that many people live in their private houses,
far away from the city and other people.
Like Harpa, for instance.
Several years ago
she finished building a private house,
that I will show you right now.
Here we are, my friends, in an average house in Iceland.
Just see who met me here!
This is Minnie.
But it is not just Minnie who lives here.
There is also a mistress of this house.
But she didn’t want to show off on cameras.
Harpa is upstairs.
Are you there? I am.
While the mistress is busy with some housework,
we will check
how the real Icelanders live.
Harpa allowed us
to show her house to the millions
of our viewers.
So, here we are in the bedroom.
That’s how it looks here.
Listen, this is a cuckoo.
It is just 5 pm.
But on the outside it is pretty dark.
Because the day is short,
the lights are almost all the time on all around the house.
They spend around $240 on electricity per month.
But if she lived in the city,
she would spend just around $48 on it.
Nature has generously awarded Iceland.
Geothermal Power plants generate electricity through underground sources.
that’s why we can save a lot on utilities.
This house is unbelievable.
It feels like a wife of Santa is living here.
Here is a holiday year-round.
It is 65 sq m.
There are a lot of greenery here, a lot of space,
and a lot of light.
It is awesome.
Minnie, my cutie,
just look at this puppy.
It is a spitz.
Now, this house is worth $160 k.
But before building it,
the mistress has already spent a lot of money and strength.
She spent $7 950
just for connecting water.
And I am not even talking about the rest utilities.
there’s not a soul around.
This house stands out of the way.
Aren’t you afraid to live here alone?
Nope, it is safe here, darling.
She said, that she isn’t afraid.
I got it.
It is safe here.
Do you lock the doors at night?
And why so, if you aren’t afraid?
The wind is very strong here.
Well, I couldn’t agree more.
So, what can I tell you?
Here Minnie is watching TV.
Are you watching “The Life of Others”?
Do you love it?
By the way, you can go with me,
and you’ll get there new brothers and sisters.
The one thing that I’ve not seen yet is a bathroom.
Concerning cold and hot water,
then it gets into the cranes of Icelandic houses directly from natural sources.
It is that clean,
that it doesn’t require any extra filters.
You can easily drink cold water.
And hot water has a small peculiarity.
It smells like hydrogen sulfide
which resembles the smell of rotten eggs.
But looking into the bathroom I did not feel any odors.
this is an average bathroom.
There’s a washing machine,
a shower cabin,
a toilet, and a sink.
It is very light here.
And I want to say,
that I noticed that their houses are so clean and tidy.
They are really taking care of their houses.
They have neither fruit gardens, nor veggie gardens in Iceland.
And the ground is to blame.
As just 1% of it
is suitable for growing vegetables or fruits.
Knutor managed to build a big
greenhouse and to provide
half of the country
with fresh tomatoes.
Every day we sell a ton of tomatoes,
cucumbers, and even strawberry.
Competition isn’t very big.
Every greenhouse is devoted to one product.
we even used to grow bananas.
But it turned to be non-cost-effective.
If not an expensive production,
then Iceland could easily become
a banana republic.
You may think
that I finally decided to go in for sports.
It’s not true, my friends.
This is a nursing home.
Let me finish, and we’ll go on.
All Icelanders go on retirement
consist of two parts.
That is a basic pension, and a professional pension.
An average pension
is around $1600.
It’s not common
to take care of parents at their old age.
when on retirement,
they usually move to nursing houses.
Moreover, of their own free will.
Am I right? Let’s walk a bit right now.
Each city has its nursing house.
To get in here,
many seniors are waiting in a queue for a couple of years.
But Helga was much luckier.
Right after she turned 67, she moved here.
And it’s already a year that she lives here.
It is like a one-bedroom apartment with a private bathroom.
And you even have a tiny kitchen here.
You must be happy here.
That’s true, darling.
Do your grandchildren and relatives often visit you?
Helga Johansdotir, a senior
We meet each week.
We meet here, chat, and have a cup of coffee.
What else do you do here?
Besides, meeting guests?
I love yoga,
and I adore embroidery.
Living in such a house
costs $2 400 per month.
It includes your room,
nutrition, health care,
and many group activities,
to your taste.
Helga has been working as a nursery for all her life.
And now her pension is just enough
to pay for staying here.
Do you pay for staying here by yourself?
Do children help you?
Nope, they don’t. I do it all by myself.
Is it common or not that children support their parents?
Here, everyone pays for himself.
Within all my life I’ve been getting ready for pension.
My mom didn’t have enough money to pay for the nursing house,
that’s why the government paid the amount needed.
Everyone here complains about high taxes
Due to taxes, the government supports seniors.
Are these your children,
and grandchildren here?
Is it common for parents to live together with their children?
It happens quite rarely here.
Cause everyone should live his life.
that the time will come
when we can become a burden for the family.
Don’t you feel sad cause of it?
No, I don’t.
I love them all, but it would be much better for us to live separately now on.
Is it better to live in Iceland before retirement,
or on the retirement?
It’s hard to say.
Each period is good enough.
What I can definitely say
is that I am happier now as I’ve never been before.
Cause, when looking at the photos of my kids,
I understand that my life was not in vain.
It is above all importance
to appreciate what you can’t buy for any money.
Life in Iceland
is like a sleeping volcano.
It is beautiful, quiet and calm.
You can hardly meet a few people and cars in the streets here,
but all the residents
know each other.
And they are entertaining in the only one theatre here.
Well, such a life could seem to be
boring and monotone for some of you,
but the very Icelanders do love it all.
The one thing which they feel lack is
warm days, love,
new faces, entertainments.
And I love it, the way it is.
No matter how beautiful our life is,
people will always feel a lack of something.
And thank God we all have our own lives.
we will never get the hang of the lives of others.
Because this is the life of others.